Sales and revenue recognition
Sales of Machinery and Power Systems are recognized and earned when all the following criteria are satisfied: (a) persuasive evidence of a sales arrangement exists; (b) price is fixed and determinable; (c) collectability is reasonably assured; and (d) delivery has occurred. Persuasive evidence of an arrangement and a fixed or determinable price exist once we receive an order or contract from a customer or independently owned and operated dealer. We assess collectability at the time of the sale and if collectability is not reasonably assured, the sale is deferred and not recognized until collectability is probable or payment is received. Typically, where product is produced and sold in the same country, title and risk of ownership transfer when the product is shipped. Products that are exported from a country for sale typically pass title and risk of ownership at the border of the destination country.
Sales of certain turbine machinery units, draglines, large shovels and long wall roof supports are recognized under accounting for construction-type contracts, primarily using the percentage-of-completion method. Revenue is recognized based upon progress towards completion, which is estimated and continually updated over the course of construction. We provide for any loss that we expect to incur on these contracts when that loss is probable.
Our remanufacturing operations are primarily focused on the remanufacture of Cat engines and components and rail related products. In this business, used engines and related components (core) are inspected, cleaned and remanufactured. In connection with the sale of most of our remanufactured product, we collect a deposit from the dealer that is repaid if the dealer returns an acceptable core within a specified time period. Caterpillar owns and has title to the cores when they are returned from dealers. The rebuilt engine or component (the core plus any new content) is then sold as a remanufactured product to dealers and customers. Revenue is recognized pursuant to the same criteria as machinery and power systems sales noted above (title to the entire remanufactured product passes to the dealer upon sale). At the time of sale, the deposit is recognized in Other current liabilities in Statement 3. In addition, the core to be returned is recognized as an asset in Prepaid expenses and other current assets in Statement 3 at the estimated replacement cost (based on historical experience with useable cores). Upon receipt of an acceptable core, we repay the deposit and relieve the liability. The returned core is then included in inventory. In the event that the deposit is forfeited (i.e. upon failure by the dealer to return an acceptable core in the specified time period), we recognize the core deposit and the cost of the core in Sales and Cost of goods sold, respectively.
No right of return exists on sales of equipment. Replacement part returns are estimable and accrued at the time a sale is recognized.
We provide discounts to dealers through merchandising programs. We have numerous programs that are designed to promote the sale of our products. The most common dealer programs provide a discount when the dealer sells a product to a targeted end user. The cost of these discounts is estimated based on historical experience and known changes in merchandising programs and is reported as a reduction to sales when the product sale is recognized.
Our standard dealer invoice terms are established by marketing region. Our invoice terms for end-user customer sales are established by the responsible business unit. When a sale is made to a dealer, the dealer is responsible for payment even if the product is not sold to an end customer. Dealers and customers must make payment within the established invoice terms to avoid potential interest costs. Interest at or above prevailing market rates may be charged on any past due balance, and generally our practice is to not forgive this interest. In 2013, terms were extended to not more than one year for $706 million of receivables, which represent approximately 1 percent of consolidated sales. In 2012 and 2011, terms were extended to not more than one year for $354 million and $341 million of receivables, respectively, which represent less than 1 percent of consolidated sales.
We establish a bad debt allowance for Machinery and Power Systems receivables when it becomes probable that the receivable will not be collected. Our allowance for bad debts is not significant.
Revenues of Financial Products primarily represent the following Cat Financial revenues:
Retail finance revenue on finance leases and installment sale contracts is recognized over the term of the contract at a constant rate of return on the scheduled outstanding principal balance. Revenue on retail notes is recognized based on the daily balance of retail receivables outstanding and the applicable effective interest rate.
Operating lease revenue is recorded on a straight-line basis in the period earned over the life of the contract.
Cat Financial provides wholesale inventory financing to dealers. Wholesale finance revenue on installment sale contracts and finance leases related to financing dealer inventory and rental fleets is recognized over the term of the contract at a constant rate of return on the scheduled outstanding principal balance. Revenue on wholesale notes is recognized based on the daily balance of wholesale receivables outstanding and the applicable effective interest rate.
Loan origination and commitment fees are deferred and amortized to revenue using the interest method over the life of the finance receivables.
Recognition of income is suspended and the loan or finance lease is placed on non-accrual status when management determines that collection of future income is not probable (generally after 120 days past due except in locations where local regulatory requirements dictate a different method, or instances in which relevant information is known that warrants placing the loan or finance lease on non-accrual status). Accrual is resumed, and previously suspended income is recognized, when the receivable becomes contractually current and/or collection doubts are removed. See Note 6 for more information.
Sales and revenues are presented net of sales and other related taxes.