SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The company follows generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (GAAP). The significant accounting policies described below, together with the other notes that follow, are an integral part of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Preparation of Financial Statements
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Basis of Consolidation
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the company, subsidiaries in which a controlling interest is maintained and variable interest entities (VIEs) for which DuPont is the primary beneficiary. For those consolidated subsidiaries in which the company's ownership is less than 100 percent, the outside stockholders' interests are shown as noncontrolling interests. Investments in affiliates over which the company has significant influence but not a controlling interest are carried on the equity method. At December 31, 2013, the assets, liabilities and operations of VIEs for which DuPont is the primary beneficiary were not material to the Consolidated Financial Statements of the company.
The company is also involved with certain joint ventures accounted for under the equity method of accounting that are VIEs. The company is not the primary beneficiary, as the nature of the company's involvement with the VIEs does not provide it the power to direct the VIEs significant activities. Future events may require these VIEs to be consolidated if the company becomes the primary beneficiary. At December 31, 2013, the maximum exposure to loss related to the unconsolidated VIEs is not considered material to the Consolidated Financial Statements of the company.
Basis of Presentation
Certain reclassifications of prior year's data have been made to conform to current year's presentation, including separately stating cost of goods sold and other operating charges on the Consolidated Income Statements. In the third quarter 2012, the company signed a definitive agreement to sell its Performance Coatings business (which represented a reportable segment). In accordance with GAAP, the results of Performance Coatings are presented as discontinued operations and, as such, have been excluded from continuing operations and segment results for all periods presented. The sum of the individual earnings per share amounts from continuing and discontinued operations may not equal the total company earnings per share amounts due to rounding. The assets and liabilities of Performance Coatings at December 31, 2012 are presented as held for sale in the Consolidated Balance Sheet. The cash flows and comprehensive income related to Performance Coatings have not been segregated and are included in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows and Comprehensive Income, respectively, for all periods presented. Amounts related to Performance Coatings are consistently included in or excluded from the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements based on the financial statement line item and period of each disclosure.
In November 2013, DuPont entered into a definitive agreement to sell Glass Laminating Solutions/Vinyls (GLS/Vinyls). The assets related to GLS/Vinyls at December 31, 2013 are presented as held for sale in the Consolidated Balance Sheet. The sale of GLS/Vinyls does not meet the criteria for discontinued operations and as such, earnings are included in the company’s income from continuing operations.
See Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information relating to the above matters.
The company recognizes revenue when the earnings process is complete. The company's revenues are from the sale of a wide range of products to a diversified base of customers around the world. Revenue for product sales is recognized upon delivery, when title and risk of loss have been transferred, collectability is reasonably assured and pricing is fixed or determinable. Substantially all product sales are sold FOB (free on board) shipping point or, with respect to non United States of America (U.S.) customers, an equivalent basis. Accruals are made for sales returns and other allowances based on the company's experience. The company accounts for cash sales incentives as a reduction in sales and noncash sales incentives as a charge to cost of goods sold or selling expense, depending on the nature of the incentive. Amounts billed to customers for shipping and handling fees are included in net sales and costs incurred by the company for the delivery of goods are classified as cost of goods sold in the Consolidated Income Statements. Taxes on revenue-producing transactions are excluded from net sales.
The company periodically enters into prepayment contracts with customers in the Agriculture segment and receives advance payments for product to be delivered in future periods. These advance payments are recorded as deferred revenue (classified as other accrued liabilities) or debt, depending on the nature of the program. Revenue associated with advance payments is recognized as shipments are made and title, ownership and risk of loss pass to the customer.
Licensing and royalty income is recognized in accordance with agreed upon terms, when performance obligations are satisfied, the amount is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash equivalents represent investments with maturities of three months or less from time of purchase. They are carried at cost plus accrued interest. The estimated fair value of the company's cash equivalents was determined using level 1 and level 2 inputs within the fair value hierarchy, as described below. The company held $5,116 and $0 of money market funds (level 1 measurements) as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The company held $2,256 and $2,026 of other cash equivalents (level 2 measurements) as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Based on observed net asset values and current interest rates for similar investments with comparable credit risk and time to maturity, the fair value of the company's cash equivalents approximates its stated value as of December 31, 2013 and 2012.
Marketable securities represent investments in fixed and floating rate financial instruments with maturities greater than three months and up to twelve months at time of purchase. They are classified as held-to-maturity and recorded at amortized cost. The carrying value approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of the investments.
Fair Value Measurements
Under the accounting for fair value measurements and disclosures, a fair value hierarchy was established that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (level 3 measurements). A financial instrument's level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
The company uses the following valuation techniques to measure fair value for its assets and liabilities:
Quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
Significant other observable inputs (e.g. quoted prices for similar items in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar items in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable such as interest rate and yield curves, and market-corroborated inputs);
Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability, which are valued based on management's estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
The company's inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market. Elements of cost in inventories include raw materials, direct labor and manufacturing overhead. Stores and supplies are valued at cost or market, whichever is lower; cost is generally determined by the average cost method.
As of December 31, 2013 and 2012 approximately 50 percent, 25 percent and 25 percent of the company’s inventories were accounted for under the first-in first out (FIFO), last-in first out (LIFO) and average cost methods, respectively. Inventories accounted for under the FIFO method are primarily comprised of products with shorter shelf lives such as seeds, certain food-ingredients and enzymes.
Change in Accounting Policy
Effective January 1, 2013, the company changed its method of valuing inventory held at a majority of its foreign and certain U.S. locations from the LIFO method to the average cost method. The company believes that the average cost method is preferable to the LIFO method as it more clearly aligns with how the company actually manages its inventory and will improve financial reporting by better matching revenues and expenses, for these inventories. In addition, the change from LIFO to average cost will enhance the comparability of our financial results with our peer companies. As described in the guidance for accounting changes, the comparative Consolidated Financial Statements of prior periods are adjusted to apply the new accounting method retrospectively.
The following line items within the Consolidated Income Statements were affected by the change in accounting policy for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011:
As reported under LIFO
As reported under LIFO
As reported under LIFO
Cost of goods sold
Income from continuing operations before income taxes
Provision for income taxes on continuing operations
Income from continuing operations after income taxes
Income from discontinued operations after income taxes
Income from noncontrolling interest increased by $4 for the year ended December 31, 2011, as a result of the above accounting policy change.
Basic earnings per share from continuing operations increased/(decreased) by $0.02, $(0.02) and $0.08 for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 respectively, as a result of the above accounting policy change.
Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations increased/(decreased) by $0.02, $(0.02) and $0.08 for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 respectively, as a result of the above accounting policy change.
Inventory and Stockholder's Equity increased by $91 and $45, respectively, as of January 1, 2011, as a result of the above accounting policy change.
There was no impact on cash provided by operating activities as a result of the above change.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment is carried at cost and is depreciated using the straight-line method. Property, plant and equipment placed in service prior to 1995 is depreciated under the sum-of-the-years' digits method or other substantially similar methods. Substantially all equipment and buildings are depreciated over useful lives ranging from 15 to 25 years. Capitalizable costs associated with computer software for internal use are amortized on a straight-line basis over 5 to 7 years. When assets are surrendered, retired, sold or otherwise disposed of, their gross carrying values and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and included in determining gain or loss on such disposals.
Maintenance and repairs are charged to operations; replacements and improvements are capitalized.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in a business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognized. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment at least annually; however, these tests are performed more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired. Impairment exists when carrying value exceeds fair value. The company's fair value methodology is based on prices of similar assets or other valuation methodologies including discounted cash flow techniques.
Definite-lived intangible assets, such as purchased and licensed technology, patents and customer lists are amortized over their estimated useful lives, generally for periods ranging from 1 to 20 years. The company continually evaluates the reasonableness of the useful lives of these assets. Once these assets are fully amortized, they are removed from the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The company evaluates the carrying value of long-lived assets to be held and used when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. The carrying value of a long-lived asset is considered impaired when the total projected undiscounted cash flows from the asset are separately identifiable and are less than its carrying value. In that event, a loss is recognized based on the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value of the long-lived asset. The company's fair value methodology is an estimate of fair market value which is made based on prices of similar assets or other valuation methodologies including present value techniques. Long-lived assets to be disposed of other than by sale are classified as held for use until their disposal. Long-lived assets to be disposed of by sale are classified as held for sale and are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair market value less cost to sell. Depreciation is discontinued for long-lived assets classified as held for sale.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development expenses include costs (primarily consisting of employee costs, materials, contract services, research agreements, and other external spend) relating to the discovery and development of new products, enhancement of existing products and regulatory approval of new and existing products.
Accruals for environmental matters are recorded in operating expenses when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be reasonably estimated. Accrued liabilities do not include claims against third parties and are not discounted.
Costs related to environmental remediation and restoration are charged to expense. Other environmental costs are also charged to expense unless they increase the value of the property or reduce or prevent contamination from future operations, in which case, they are capitalized.
Asset Retirement Obligations
The company records asset retirement obligations at fair value at the time the liability is incurred. Accretion expense is recognized as an operating expense using the credit-adjusted risk-free interest rate in effect when the liability was recognized. The associated asset retirement obligations are capitalized as part of the carrying amount of the long-lived asset and depreciated over the estimated remaining useful life of the asset, generally for periods ranging from 1 to 25 years.
The company accrues for liabilities related to litigation matters when the information available indicates that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be reasonably estimated. Legal costs such as outside counsel fees and expenses are charged to expense in the period incurred.
The company self-insures certain risks where permitted by law or regulation, including workers' compensation, vehicle liability and employee related benefits. Liabilities associated with these risks are estimated in part by considering historical claims experience, demographic factors and other actuarial assumptions. For other risks, the company uses a combination of insurance and self-insurance, reflecting comprehensive reviews of relevant risks. A receivable for an insurance recovery is generally recognized when the loss has occurred and collection is considered probable.
The provision for income taxes is determined using the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes. Under this approach, deferred taxes represent the future tax consequences expected to occur when the reported amounts of assets and liabilities are recovered or paid. The provision for income taxes represents income taxes paid or payable for the current year plus the change in deferred taxes during the year. Deferred taxes result from differences between the financial and tax basis of the company's assets and liabilities and are adjusted for changes in tax rates and tax laws when changes are enacted. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized. Provision has been made for income taxes on unremitted earnings of subsidiaries and affiliates, except for subsidiaries in which earnings are deemed to be indefinitely invested. Investment tax credits or grants are accounted for in the period earned (the flow-through method). Interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits is included in miscellaneous income and expenses, net, under other income, net. Income tax related penalties are included in the provision for income taxes.
Foreign Currency Translation
The company's worldwide operations utilize the U.S. dollar or local currency as the functional currency, where applicable. For subsidiaries where the U.S. dollar (USD) is the functional currency, all foreign currency asset and liability amounts are remeasured into USD at end-of-period exchange rates, except for inventories, prepaid expenses, property, plant and equipment, goodwill and other intangible assets, which are remeasured at historical rates. Foreign currency income and expenses are remeasured at average exchange rates in effect during the year, except for expenses related to balance sheet amounts remeasured at historical exchange rates. Exchange gains and losses arising from remeasurement of foreign currency-denominated monetary assets and liabilities are included in income in the period in which they occur.
For subsidiaries where the local currency is the functional currency, assets and liabilities denominated in local currencies are translated into USD at end-of-period exchange rates and the resultant translation adjustments are reported, net of their related tax effects, as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in equity. Assets and liabilities denominated in other than the local currency are remeasured into the local currency prior to translation into USD and the resultant exchange gains or losses are included in income in the period in which they occur. Income and expenses are translated into USD at average exchange rates in effect during the period.
Hedging and Trading Activities
Derivative instruments are reported in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at their fair values. For derivative instruments designated as fair value hedges, changes in the fair values of the derivative instruments will generally be offset in the income statement by changes in the fair value of the hedged items. For derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges, the effective portion of any hedge is reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) until it is cleared to earnings during the same period in which the hedged item affects earnings. The ineffective portion of all hedges is recognized in current period earnings. Changes in the fair values of derivative instruments that are not designated as hedges are recorded in current period earnings.
In the event that a derivative designated as a hedge of a firm commitment or an anticipated transaction is terminated prior to the maturation of the hedged transaction, gains or losses realized at termination are deferred and included in the measurement of the hedged transaction. If a hedged transaction matures, or is sold, extinguished, or terminated prior to the maturity of a derivative designated as a hedge of such transaction, gains or losses associated with the derivative through the date the transaction matured are included in the measurement of the hedged transaction and the derivative is reclassified as for trading purposes. Derivatives designated as a hedge of an anticipated transaction are reclassified as for trading purposes if the anticipated transaction is no longer probable.
Cash flows from derivative instruments accounted for as either fair value hedges or cash flow hedges are reported in the same category as the cash flows from the items being hedged. Cash flows from all other derivative instruments are generally reported as investing activities in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. See Note 20 for additional discussion regarding the company's objectives and strategies for derivative instruments.