Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
(a) Cash and Cash Equivalents The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original or remaining maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are maintained with various financial institutions.
(b) Available-for-Sale Investments The Company classifies its investments in both fixed income securities and publicly traded equity securities as available-for-sale investments. Fixed income securities primarily consist of U.S. government securities, U.S. government agency securities, non-U.S. government and agency securities, corporate debt securities, and U.S. agency mortgage-backed securities. These available-for-sale investments are primarily held in the custody of a major financial institution. A specific identification method is used to determine the cost basis of fixed income and public equity securities sold. These investments are recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses on these investments, to the extent the investments are unhedged, are included as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI), net of tax. The Company classifies its investments as current based on the nature of the investments and their availability for use in current operations.
(c) Other-than-Temporary Impairments on Investments When the fair value of a debt security is less than its amortized cost, it is deemed impaired, and the Company will assess whether the impairment is other than temporary. An impairment is considered other than temporary if (i) the Company has the intent to sell the security, (ii) it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of the entire amortized cost basis, or (iii) the Company does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis of the security. If impairment is considered other than temporary based on condition (i) or (ii) described earlier, the entire difference between the amortized cost and the fair value of the debt security is recognized in earnings. If an impairment is considered other than temporary based on condition (iii), the amount representing credit losses (defined as the difference between the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected and the amortized cost basis of the debt security) will be recognized in earnings, and the amount relating to all other factors will be recognized in other comprehensive income (OCI).
The Company recognizes an impairment charge on publicly traded equity securities when a decline in the fair value of a security below the respective cost basis is judged to be other than temporary. The Company considers various factors in determining whether a decline in the fair value of these investments is other than temporary, including the length of time and extent to which the fair value of the security has been less than the Company’s cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer, and the Company’s intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value.
Investments in privately held companies are included in other assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and are primarily accounted for using either the cost or equity method. The Company monitors these investments for impairments and makes reductions in carrying values if the Company determines that an impairment charge is required based primarily on the financial condition and near-term prospects of these companies.
(d) Inventories Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is computed using standard cost, which approximates actual cost, on a first-in, first-out basis. The Company provides inventory write-downs based on excess and obsolete inventories determined primarily by future demand forecasts. The write-down is measured as the difference between the cost of the inventory and market based upon assumptions about future demand and charged to the provision for inventory, which is a component of cost of sales. At the point of the loss recognition, a new, lower cost basis for that inventory is established, and
subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis. In addition, the Company records a liability for firm, noncancelable, and unconditional purchase commitments with contract manufacturers and suppliers for quantities in excess of the Company’s future demand forecasts consistent with its valuation of excess and obsolete inventory.
(e) Allowance for Doubtful Accounts The allowance for doubtful accounts is based on the Company’s assessment of the collectibility of customer accounts. The Company regularly reviews the allowance by considering factors such as historical experience, credit quality, age of the accounts receivable balances, economic conditions that may affect a customer’s ability to pay, and expected default frequency rates. Trade receivables are written off at the point when they are considered uncollectible.
(f) Financing Receivables and Guarantees The Company provides financing arrangements, including leases, financed service contracts, and loans, for certain qualified end-user customers to build, maintain, and upgrade their networks. Lease receivables primarily represent sales-type and direct-financing leases. Leases have on average a four-year term and are usually collateralized by a security interest in the underlying assets, while loan receivables generally have terms of up to three years. Financed service contracts typically have terms of one to three years and primarily relate to technical support services.
The Company determines the adequacy of its allowance for credit loss by assessing the risks and losses inherent in its financing receivables by portfolio segment. The portfolio segment is based on the types of financing offered by the Company to its customers: lease receivables, loan receivables, and financed service contracts and other.
The Company assesses the allowance for credit loss related to financing receivables on either an individual or a collective basis. The Company considers various factors in evaluating lease and loan receivables and the earned portion of financed service contracts for possible impairment on an individual basis. These factors include the Company’s historical experience, credit quality and age of the receivable balances, and economic conditions that may affect a customer’s ability to pay. When the evaluation indicates that it is probable that all amounts due pursuant to the contractual terms of the financing agreement, including scheduled interest payments, are unable to be collected, the financing receivable is considered impaired. All such outstanding amounts, including any accrued interest, will be assessed and fully reserved at the customer level. The Company’s internal credit risk ratings are categorized as 1 through 10, with the lowest credit risk rating representing the highest quality financing receivables. Typically, the Company also considers receivables with a risk rating of 8 or higher to be impaired and will include them in the individual assessment for allowance. The Company evaluates the remainder of its financing receivables portfolio for impairment on a collective basis and records an allowance for credit loss at the portfolio segment level. When evaluating the financing receivables on a collective basis, the Company uses expected default frequency rates published by a major third-party credit-rating agency as well as its own historical loss rate in the event of default, while also systematically giving effect to economic conditions, concentration of risk, and correlation.
Expected default frequency rates are published quarterly by a major third-party credit-rating agency, and the internal credit risk rating is derived by taking into consideration various customer-specific factors and macroeconomic conditions. These factors, which include the strength of the customer’s business and financial performance, the quality of the customer’s banking relationships, the Company’s specific historical experience with the customer, the performance and outlook of the customer’s industry, the customer’s legal and regulatory environment, the potential sovereign risk of the geographic locations in which the customer is operating, and independent third-party evaluations, are updated regularly or when facts and circumstances indicate that an update is deemed necessary.
Financing receivables are written off at the point when they are considered uncollectible, and all outstanding balances, including any previously earned but uncollected interest income, will be reversed and charged against the allowance for credit loss. The Company does not typically have any partially written-off financing receivables.
Outstanding financing receivables that are aged 31 days or more from the contractual payment date are considered past due. The Company does not accrue interest on financing receivables that are considered impaired or more than 90 days past due unless either the receivable has not been collected due to administrative reasons or the receivable is well secured and in the process of collection. Financing receivables may be placed on nonaccrual status earlier if, in management’s opinion, a timely collection of the full principal and interest becomes uncertain. After a financing receivable has been categorized as nonaccrual, interest will be recognized when cash is received. A financing receivable may be returned to accrual status after all of the customer’s delinquent balances of principal and interest have been settled, and the customer remains current for an appropriate period.
The Company facilitates arrangements for third-party financing extended to channel partners, consisting of revolving short-term financing, generally with payment terms ranging from 60 to 90 days. In certain instances, these financing arrangements result in a transfer of the Company’s receivables to the third party. The receivables are derecognized upon transfer, as these transfers qualify as true sales, and the Company receives a payment for the receivables from the third party based on the Company’s standard payment terms. These financing arrangements facilitate the working capital requirements of the channel partners, and, in some cases, the Company guarantees a portion of these arrangements. The Company also provides financing guarantees for third-party financing arrangements extended to end-user customers related to leases and loans, which typically
have terms of up to three years. The Company could be called upon to make payments under these guarantees in the event of nonpayment by the channel partners or end-user customers. Deferred revenue relating to these financing arrangements is recorded in accordance with revenue recognition policies or for the fair value of the financing guarantees.
(g) Depreciation and Amortization Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation or amortization, whenever applicable. Depreciation and amortization expenses for property and equipment were approximately $1.2 billion, $1.2 billion, and $1.1 billion for fiscal 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively. Depreciation and amortization are computed using the straight-line method, generally over the following periods:
Shorter of remaining lease term or up to 10 years
Computer equipment and related software
30 to 36 months
Production, engineering, and other equipment
Up to 5 years
Operating lease assets
Based on lease term
Furniture and fixtures
(h) Business Combinations The Company allocates the fair value of the purchase consideration of its acquisitions to the tangible assets, liabilities, and intangible assets acquired, including in-process research and development (IPR&D), based on their estimated fair values. The excess of the fair value of purchase consideration over the fair values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. IPR&D is initially capitalized at fair value as an intangible asset with an indefinite life and assessed for impairment thereafter. When a project underlying reported IPR&D is completed, the corresponding amount of IPR&D is reclassified as an amortizable purchased intangible asset and is amortized over the asset’s estimated useful life. Acquisition-related expenses and restructuring costs are recognized separately from the business combination and are expensed as incurred.
(i) Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis in the fourth fiscal quarter and, when specific circumstances dictate, between annual tests. When impaired, the carrying value of goodwill is written down to fair value. The goodwill impairment test involves a two-step process. The first step, identifying a potential impairment, compares the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step would need to be conducted; otherwise, no further steps are necessary as no potential impairment exists. If necessary, the second step to measure the impairment loss would be to compare the implied fair value of the reporting unit goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. Any excess of the reporting unit goodwill carrying value over the respective implied fair value is recognized as an impairment loss. Purchased intangible assets with finite lives are carried at cost, less accumulated amortization. Amortization is computed over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets. See “Long-Lived Assets” for the Company’s policy regarding impairment testing of purchased intangible assets with finite lives. Purchased intangible assets with indefinite lives are assessed for potential impairment annually or when events or circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts might be impaired.
(j) Long-Lived Assets Long-lived assets that are held and used by the Company are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Determination of recoverability of long-lived assets is based on an estimate of the undiscounted future cash flows resulting from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. Measurement of an impairment loss for long-lived assets that management expects to hold and use is based on the difference between the fair value of the asset and its carrying value. Long-lived assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.
(k) Fair Value Fair value is defined as the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining the fair value measurements for assets and liabilities required or permitted to be either recorded or disclosed at fair value, the Company considers the principal or most advantageous market in which it would transact, and it also considers assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability.
The accounting guidance for fair value measurement requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The standard establishes a fair value hierarchy based on the level of independent, objective evidence surrounding the inputs used to measure fair value. A financial instrument’s categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The fair value hierarchy is as follows:
Level 1 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets); or model-derived valuations in which significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from, or corroborated by, observable market data.
Level 3 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
(l) Derivative Instruments The Company recognizes derivative instruments as either assets or liabilities and measures those instruments at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation. For a derivative instrument designated as a fair value hedge, the gain or loss is recognized in earnings in the period of change together with the offsetting loss or gain on the hedged item attributed to the risk being hedged. For a derivative instrument designated as a cash flow hedge, the effective portion of the derivative’s gain or loss is initially reported as a component of AOCI and subsequently reclassified into earnings when the hedged exposure affects earnings. The ineffective portion of the gain or loss is reported in earnings immediately. For a derivative instrument designated as a net investment hedge of the Company’s foreign operations, the gain or loss is recorded in the cumulative translation adjustment within AOCI together with the offsetting loss or gain of the hedged exposure of the underlying foreign operations. Any ineffective portion of the net investment hedges is reported in earnings during the period of change. For derivative instruments that are not designated as accounting hedges, changes in fair value are recognized in earnings in the period of change. The Company records derivative instruments in the statements of cash flows to operating, investing, or financing activities consistent with the cash flows of the hedged item.
Hedge effectiveness for foreign exchange forward contracts used as cash flow hedges is assessed by comparing the change in the fair value of the hedge contract with the change in the fair value of the forecasted cash flows of the hedged item. Hedge effectiveness for equity forward contracts and foreign exchange net investment hedge forward contracts is assessed by comparing changes in fair value due to changes in spot rates for both the derivative and the hedged item. For foreign exchange option contracts, hedge effectiveness is assessed based on the hedging instrument’s entire change in fair value. Hedge effectiveness for interest rate swaps is assessed by comparing the change in fair value of the swap with the change in the fair value of the hedged item due to changes in the benchmark interest rate.
(m) Foreign Currency Translation Assets and liabilities of non-U.S. subsidiaries that operate in a local currency environment, where that local currency is the functional currency, are translated to U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, with the resulting translation adjustments directly recorded to a separate component of AOCI. Income and expense accounts are translated at average exchange rates during the year. Remeasurement adjustments are recorded in other income (loss), net. The effect of foreign currency exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents was not material for any of the fiscal years presented.
(n) Concentrations of Risk Cash and cash equivalents are maintained with several financial institutions. Deposits held with banks may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits. Generally, these deposits may be redeemed upon demand and are maintained with financial institutions with reputable credit and therefore bear minimal credit risk. The Company seeks to mitigate its credit risks by spreading such risks across multiple counterparties and monitoring the risk profiles of these counterparties.
The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and, with the exception of certain financing transactions, does not require collateral from its customers. The Company receives certain of its components from sole suppliers. Additionally, the Company relies on a limited number of contract manufacturers and suppliers to provide manufacturing services for its products. The inability of a contract manufacturer or supplier to fulfill supply requirements of the Company could materially impact future operating results.
(o) Revenue Recognition The Company recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the fee is fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured. In instances where final acceptance of the product, system, or solution is specified by the customer, revenue is deferred until all acceptance criteria have been met. For hosting arrangements, the Company recognizes subscription revenue ratably over the subscription period, while usage revenue is recognized based on utilization. Software subscription revenue is deferred and recognized ratably over the subscription term upon delivery of the first product and commencement of the term. Technical support services revenue is deferred and recognized ratably over the period during which the services are to be performed, which is typically from one to three years. Advanced services transactional revenue is recognized upon delivery or completion of performance.
The Company uses distributors that stock inventory and typically sell to systems integrators, service providers, and other resellers. The Company refers to this as its two-tier system of sales to the end customer. Revenue from distributors is recognized based on a sell-through method using information provided by them. Distributors and other partners participate in various rebate, cooperative marketing and other programs, and the Company maintains estimated accruals and allowances for these programs. The ending liability for these programs was included in other current liabilities and the balance as of July 26, 2014 and July 27, 2013 was $1.3 billion and $1.1 billion, respectively. The Company accrues for warranty costs, sales returns,
and other allowances based on its historical experience. Shipping and handling fees billed to customers are included in revenue, with the associated costs included in cost of sales.
Many of the Company’s products have both software and nonsoftware components that function together to deliver the products’ essential functionality. The Company’s product offerings fall into the following categories: Switching, Next-Generation Network (NGN) Routing, Service Provider Video, Collaboration, Data Center, Wireless, Security, and Other Products. The Company also provides technical support and advanced services. The Company has a broad customer base that encompasses virtually all types of public and private entities, including enterprise businesses, service providers, and commercial customers. The Company and its salesforce are not organized by product divisions, and the Company’s products and services can be sold standalone or together in various combinations across the Company’s geographic segments or customer markets. For example, service provider arrangements are typically larger in scale with longer deployment schedules and involve the delivery of a variety of product technologies, including high-end routing, video and network management software, and other product technologies along with technical support and advanced services. The Company’s enterprise and commercial arrangements are unique for each customer and smaller in scale and may include network infrastructure products such as routers and switches or collaboration technologies such as Unified Communications and Cisco TelePresence systems products along with technical support services.
The Company enters into revenue arrangements that may consist of multiple deliverables of its product and service offerings due to the needs of its customers. For example, a customer may purchase routing products along with a contract for technical support services. This arrangement would consist of multiple elements, with the products delivered in one reporting period and the technical support services delivered across multiple reporting periods. Another customer may purchase networking products along with advanced service offerings, in which all the elements are delivered within the same reporting period. In addition, distributors purchase products or technical support services on a standalone basis for resale to an end user or for purposes of stocking certain products, and these transactions would not result in a multiple-element arrangement.
In many instances, products are sold separately in standalone arrangements as customers may support the products themselves or purchase support on a time-and-materials basis. Advanced services are sometimes sold in standalone engagements such as general consulting, network management, or security advisory projects, and technical support services are sold separately through renewals of annual contracts. The Company determines its vendor-specific objective evidence (VSOE) based on its normal pricing and discounting practices for the specific product or service when sold separately. VSOE determination requires that a substantial majority of the historical standalone transactions have the selling prices for a product or service that fall within a reasonably narrow pricing range, generally evidenced by approximately 80% of such historical standalone transactions falling within plus or minus 15% of the median rates. In addition, the Company considers the geographies in which the products or services are sold, major product and service groups and customer classifications, and other environmental or marketing variables in determining VSOE.
When the Company is not able to establish VSOE for all deliverables in an arrangement with multiple elements, which may be due to the Company infrequently selling each element separately, not pricing products within a narrow range, or only having a limited sales history, such as in the case of certain newly introduced product categories, the Company attempts to determine the selling price of each element based on third-party evidence of selling price (TPE). TPE is determined based on competitor prices for similar deliverables when sold separately. Generally, the Company’s go-to-market strategy differs from that of its peers, and its offerings contain a significant level of differentiation such that the comparable pricing of products with similar functionality cannot be obtained. Furthermore, the Company is unable to reliably determine what similar competitor products’ selling prices are on a standalone basis. Therefore, the Company is typically not able to determine TPE.
When the Company is unable to establish fair value using VSOE or TPE, the Company uses estimated selling prices (ESP) in its allocation of arrangement consideration. The objective of ESP is to determine the price at which the Company would transact a sale if the product or service were regularly sold on a standalone basis. ESP is generally used for new or highly proprietary offerings and solutions or for offerings not priced within a reasonably narrow range. The Company determines ESP for a product or service by considering multiple factors, including, but not limited to, geographies, market conditions, competitive landscape, internal costs, gross margin objectives, and pricing practices. The determination of ESP is made through consultation with and formal approval by the Company’s management, taking into consideration the go-to-market strategy.
The Company regularly reviews VSOE, TPE, and ESP and maintains internal controls over the establishment and updates of these estimates. There were no material impacts during the fiscal year, nor does the Company currently expect a material impact in the near term from changes in VSOE, TPE, or ESP.
The Company’s arrangements with multiple deliverables may have a standalone software deliverable that is subject to the software revenue recognition guidance. In these cases, revenue for the software is generally recognized upon shipment or electronic delivery and granting of the license. The revenue for these multiple-element arrangements is allocated to the software deliverable and the nonsoftware deliverables based on the relative selling prices of all of the deliverables in the arrangement using the hierarchy in the applicable accounting guidance. In the circumstances where the Company cannot
determine VSOE or TPE of the selling price for all of the deliverables in the arrangement, including the software deliverable, ESP is used for the purposes of performing this allocation.
(p) Advertising Costs The Company expenses all advertising costs as incurred. Advertising costs included within sales and marketing expenses were approximately $196 million, $218 million, and $218 million for fiscal 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively.
(q) Share-Based Compensation Expense The Company measures and recognizes the compensation expense for all share-based awards made to employees and directors, including employee stock options, stock grants, stock units, and employee stock purchases related to the Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“Employee Stock Purchase Rights”) based on estimated fair values. The fair value of employee stock options is estimated on the date of grant using a lattice-binomial option-pricing model (“Lattice-Binomial Model”) or the Black-Scholes model, and for employee stock purchase rights the Company estimates the fair value using the Black-Scholes model. The fair value for time-based stock awards and stock awards that are contingent upon the achievement of financial performance metrics is based on the grant date share price reduced by the present value of the expected dividend yield prior to vesting. The fair value of market-based stock awards is estimated using an option-pricing model on the date of grant. Share-based compensation expense is reduced for forfeitures.
(r) Software Development Costs Software development costs, including costs to develop software sold, leased, or otherwise marketed, that are incurred subsequent to the establishment of technological feasibility are capitalized if significant. Costs incurred during the application development stage for internal-use software are capitalized if significant. Capitalized software development costs are amortized using the straight-line amortization method over the estimated useful life of the applicable software. Such software development costs required to be capitalized have not been material to date.
(s) Income Taxes Income tax expense is based on pretax financial accounting income. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized.
The Company accounts for uncertainty in income taxes using a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon settlement. The Company classifies the liability for unrecognized tax benefits as current to the extent that the Company anticipates payment (or receipt) of cash within one year. Interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions are recognized in the provision for income taxes.
(t) Computation of Net Income per Share Basic net income per share is computed using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is computed using the weighted-average number of common shares and dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted shares outstanding includes the dilutive effect of in-the-money options, unvested restricted stock, and restricted stock units. The dilutive effect of such equity awards is calculated based on the average share price for each fiscal period using the treasury stock method. Under the treasury stock method, the amount the employee must pay for exercising stock options, the amount of compensation cost for future service that the Company has not yet recognized, and the amount of tax benefits that would be recorded in additional paid-in capital when the award becomes deductible are collectively assumed to be used to repurchase shares.
(u) Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities The Company uses a qualitative approach in assessing the consolidation requirement for variable interest entities. The approach focuses on identifying which enterprise has the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the variable interest entity’s economic performance and which enterprise has the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the variable interest entity. In the event that the Company is the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity, the assets, liabilities, and results of operations of the variable interest entity will be included in the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
(v) Use of Estimates The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes. Estimates are used for the following, among others:
Allowances for accounts receivable, sales returns, and financing receivables
Inventory valuation and liability for purchase commitments with contract manufacturers and suppliers
Loss contingencies and product warranties
Fair value measurements and other-than-temporary impairments
Goodwill and purchased intangible asset impairments
The actual results experienced by the Company may differ materially from management’s estimates.
(w) New Accounting Updates Recently Adopted
In December 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued an accounting standard update requiring enhanced disclosures about certain financial instruments and derivative instruments that are offset in the statement of financial position or that are subject to enforceable master netting arrangements or similar agreements. This accounting standard became effective for the Company in the first quarter of fiscal 2014. As a result of the application of this accounting standard update, the Company has provided additional disclosures in Note 11.
In July 2012, the FASB issued an accounting standard update intended to simplify how an entity tests indefinite-lived intangible assets other than goodwill for impairment by providing entities with an option to perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary. This accounting standard update became effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2014, and its adoption did not have any impact on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
In February 2013, the FASB issued an accounting standard update to require reclassification adjustments from other comprehensive income to be presented either in the financial statements or in the notes to the financial statements. This accounting standard became effective for the Company in the first quarter of fiscal 2014. As a result of the application of this accounting standard update, the Company has provided additional disclosures in Note 15.
(x) Recent Accounting Standards or Updates Not Yet Effective
In March 2013, the FASB issued an accounting standard update requiring an entity to release into net income the entire amount of a cumulative translation adjustment related to its investment in a foreign entity when as a parent it sells either a part or all of its investment in the foreign entity or no longer holds a controlling financial interest in a subsidiary or group of assets within the foreign entity. This accounting standard update was effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2015. Upon adoption, the application of this accounting standard update did not have any impact to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
In July 2013, the FASB issued an accounting standard update that provides explicit guidance on the financial statement presentation of an unrecognized tax benefit when a net operating loss carryforward or a tax credit carryforward exists. Under the new standard update, an unrecognized tax benefit, or a portion of an unrecognized tax benefit, is to be presented in the financial statements as a reduction to a deferred tax asset for a net operating loss carryforward or a tax credit carryforward. This accounting standard update was effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2015 and applied prospectively with early adoption permitted. Upon adoption, the application of this accounting standard update did not have a material impact to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
In April 2014, the FASB issued an accounting standard update that changes the criteria for reporting discontinued operations. This accounting standard update raises the threshold for a disposal transaction to qualify as a discontinued operation and requires additional disclosures about discontinued operations and disposals of individually significant components that do not qualify as discontinued operations. This accounting standard update will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2016. Early adoption is permitted, but only for disposals that have not been reported in financial statements previously issued. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this accounting standard update on its Consolidated Financial Statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued an accounting standard update related to revenue from contracts with customers, which will supersede nearly all current U.S. GAAP guidance on this topic and eliminate industry-specific guidance. The underlying principle is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received for those goods or services. This accounting standard update will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The new revenue standard may be applied retrospectively to each prior period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect recognized as of the date of adoption. Early adoption is not permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this accounting standard update on its Consolidated Financial Statements.