NOTE 1. Significant Accounting Policies
Consolidation: 3M is a diversified global manufacturer, technology innovator and marketer of a wide variety of products. All subsidiaries are consolidated. All significant intercompany transactions are eliminated. As used herein, the term “3M” or “Company” refers to 3M Company and subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise.
Foreign currency translation: Local currencies generally are considered the functional currencies outside the United States. Assets and liabilities for operations in local-currency environments are translated at month-end exchange rates of the period reported. Income and expense items are translated at month-end exchange rates of each applicable month. Cumulative translation adjustments are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in shareholders' equity.
Although local currencies are typically considered as the functional currencies outside the United States, under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 830, Foreign Currency Matters, the reporting currency of a foreign entity's parent is assumed to be that entity's functional currency when the economic environment of a foreign entity is highly inflationary — generally when its cumulative inflation is approximately 100 percent or more for the three years that precede the beginning of a reporting period. 3M has a subsidiary in Venezuela with operating income representing less than 1.0 percent of 3M's consolidated operating income for 2013. 3M has determined that the cumulative inflation rate of Venezuela has exceeded, and continues to exceed, 100 percent since November 2009. Accordingly, since January 1, 2010, the financial statements of the Venezuelan subsidiary have been remeasured as if its functional currency were that of its parent.
The Venezuelan government sets official rates of exchange and conditions precedent to purchase foreign currency at these rates with local currency. Such rates and conditions are subject to change. For the periods presented through January 2013, this rate was set under the Transaction System for Foreign Currency Denominated Securities (SITME). In February 2013, the Venezuelan government announced a devaluation of its currency, the elimination of the SITME market, and the creation of the Superior Body for the Optimization of the Exchange System to oversee its foreign currency exchange policies. As a result, the new official exchange rate changed to a rate less favorable than the previous SITME rate. Since January 1, 2010, as discussed above, the financial statements of 3M's Venezuelan subsidiary have been remeasured as if its functional currency were that of its parent. For the periods presented, this remeasurement utilized the SITME rate through January 2013 and the new official rate discussed above thereafter. Other factors notwithstanding, the elimination of the SITME rate and use of the new official exchange rate beginning in February 2013 did not have a material impact on 3M's consolidated results of operations or financial condition.
The Company continues to monitor circumstances relative to its Venezuelan subsidiary. In January 2014, the Venezuelan government announced that it was making certain changes to its foreign exchange system, the details of which have not been fully released. These changes could impact the rate of exchange applicable to remeasure the Company's net monetary assets denominated in Venezuelan Bolivars (VEF) as well as the amount of VEF required to obtain other currencies in Venezuela to ultimately satisfy that subsidiary's non-VEF denominated intercompany payables to other 3M entities primarily as a result of the importation of 3M products for sale in Venezuela. As of December 31, 2013, the balance of the Company's net monetary assets denominated in VEF was less than 12 million VEF and the exchange rate established by the Venezuelan government was 6.3 VEF per dollar. In addition, the balance of the Venezuelan subsidiary's non-VEF denominated intercompany payables to other 3M entities was approximately $45 million as of December 31, 2013.
Reclassifications: Certain amounts in the prior years' consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
Use of estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Cash and cash equivalents: Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and temporary investments with maturities of three months or less when acquired.
Marketable securities: The classification of marketable securities as current or non-current is dependent upon management's intended holding period, the security's maturity date and liquidity considerations based on market conditions. If management intends to hold the securities for longer than one year as of the balance sheet date, they are classified as non-current. 3M reviews impairments associated with its marketable securities in accordance with the measurement guidance provided by ASC 320, Investments-Debt and Equity Securities, when determining the classification of the impairment as “temporary” or “other-than-temporary”. A temporary impairment charge results in an unrealized loss being recorded in the other comprehensive income component of shareholders' equity. Such an unrealized loss does not reduce net income for the applicable accounting period because the loss is not viewed as other-than-temporary. The factors evaluated to differentiate between temporary and other-than-temporary include the projected future cash flows, credit ratings actions, and assessment of the credit quality of the underlying collateral, as well as other factors.
Investments: Investments primarily include equity method, cost method, and available-for-sale equity investments. Available-for-sale investments are recorded at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses relating to investments classified as available-for-sale are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in shareholders' equity.
Other assets: Other assets include deferred income taxes, product and other insurance receivables, the cash surrender value of life insurance policies, and other long-term assets. Investments in life insurance are reported at the amount that could be realized under contract at the balance sheet date, with any changes in cash surrender value or contract value during the period accounted for as an adjustment of premiums paid. Cash outflows and inflows associated with life insurance activity are included in “Purchases of marketable securities and investments” and “Proceeds from maturities and sale of marketable securities and investments,” respectively.
Inventories: Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market, with cost generally determined on a first-in, first-out basis.
Property, plant and equipment: Property, plant and equipment, including capitalized interest and internal engineering costs, are recorded at cost. Depreciation of property, plant and equipment generally is computed using the straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives of the assets. The estimated useful lives of buildings and improvements primarily range from 10 to 40 years, with the majority in the range of 20 to 40 years. The estimated useful lives of machinery and equipment primarily range from three to 15 years, with the majority in the range of five to 10 years. Fully depreciated assets are retained in property and accumulated depreciation accounts until disposal. Upon disposal, assets and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and the net amount, less proceeds from disposal, is charged or credited to operations. Property, plant and equipment amounts are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset (asset group) may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be recognized when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. The amount of the impairment loss recorded is calculated by the excess of the asset's carrying value over its fair value. Fair value is generally determined using a discounted cash flow analysis.
Conditional asset retirement obligations: A liability is initially recorded at fair value for an asset retirement obligation associated with the retirement of tangible long-lived assets in the period in which it is incurred if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made. Conditional asset retirement obligations exist for certain long-term assets of the Company. The obligation is initially measured at fair value using expected present value techniques. Over time the liabilities are accreted for the change in their present value and the initial capitalized costs are depreciated over the remaining useful lives of the related assets. The asset retirement obligation liability was $90 million and $86 million at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Goodwill: Goodwill is the excess of cost of an acquired entity over the amounts assigned to assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. Goodwill is not amortized. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually in the fourth quarter of each year, and is tested for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would indicate the carrying amount may be impaired. Impairment testing for goodwill is done at a reporting unit level, with all goodwill assigned to a reporting unit. Reporting units are one level below the business segment level, but can be combined when reporting units within the same segment have similar economic characteristics. 3M did not combine any of its reporting units for impairment testing. An impairment loss generally would be recognized when the carrying amount of the reporting unit's net assets exceeds the estimated fair value of the reporting unit. The estimated fair value of a reporting unit is determined using earnings for the reporting unit multiplied by a price/earnings ratio for comparable industry groups, or by using a discounted cash flow analysis.
Intangible assets: Intangible assets include patents, tradenames and other intangible assets acquired from an independent party. Intangible assets with an indefinite life, namely certain tradenames, are not amortized. Intangible assets with a definite life are amortized over a period ranging from one to 20 years generally on a straight line basis, unless another systematic and rational basis is more representative of the asset's use. Indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment annually, and are tested for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would indicate that the carrying amount may be impaired. Intangible assets with a definite life are tested for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset (asset group) may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds the estimated undiscounted cash flows used in determining the fair value of the asset. The amount of the impairment loss recorded is calculated by the excess of the asset's carrying value over its fair value. Fair value is generally determined using a discounted cash flow analysis. Costs related to internally developed intangible assets, such as patents, are expensed as incurred, primarily in “Research, development and related expenses.”
Restructuring actions: Restructuring actions generally include significant actions involving employee-related severance charges, contract termination costs, and impairment of assets associated with such actions. Employee-related severance charges are largely based upon distributed employment policies and substantive severance plans. These charges are reflected in the quarter when the actions are probable and the amounts are estimable, which typically is when management approves the associated actions. Severance amounts for which affected employees were required to render service in order to receive benefits at their termination dates were measured at the date such benefits were communicated to the applicable employees and recognized as expense over the employees' remaining service periods. Contract termination and other charges primarily reflect costs to terminate a contract before the end of its term (measured at fair value at the time the Company provided notice to the counterparty) or costs that will continue to be incurred under the contract for its remaining term without economic benefit to the Company. Asset impairment charges related to intangible assets and property, plant and equipment reflect the excess of the assets' carrying values over their fair values.
Revenue (sales) recognition: The Company sells a wide range of products to a diversified base of customers around the world and has no material concentration of credit risk. Revenue is recognized when the risks and rewards of ownership have substantively transferred to customers. This condition normally is met when the product has been delivered or upon performance of services. The Company records estimated reductions to revenue or records expense for customer and distributor incentives, primarily comprised of rebates and free goods, at the time of the initial sale. These sales incentives are accounted for in accordance with ASC 605, Revenue Recognition. The estimated reductions of revenue for rebates are based on the sales terms, historical experience, trend analysis and projected market conditions in the various markets served. Since the Company serves numerous markets, the rebate programs offered vary across businesses, but the most common incentive relates to amounts paid or credited to customers for achieving defined volume levels or growth objectives. Free goods are accounted for as an expense and recorded in cost of sales. Sales, use, value-added and other excise taxes are not recognized in revenue.
The vast majority of 3M's sales agreements are for standard products and services with customer acceptance occurring upon delivery of the product or performance of the service. However, to a limited extent 3M also enters into agreements that involve multiple elements (such as equipment, installation and service), software, or non-standard terms and conditions.
For non-software multiple-element arrangements, in connection with 3M's adoption on a prospective basis of Accounting Standards Updated (ASU) No. 2009-13, Multiple-Deliverable Revenue Arrangements—a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force, to new or materially modified arrangements beginning in 2011, the Company recognizes revenue for delivered elements when they have stand-alone value to the customer, they have been accepted by the customer, and for which there are only customary refund or return rights. Arrangement consideration is allocated to the deliverables by use of the relative selling price method. The selling price used for each deliverable is based on vendor-specific objective evidence (VSOE) if available, third-party evidence (TPE) if VSOE is not available, or estimated selling price if neither VSOE nor TPE is available. Estimated selling price is determined in a manner consistent with that used to establish the price to sell the deliverable on a standalone basis. For applicable pre-existing arrangements, 3M recognizes revenue for delivered elements when the fair values of the undelivered items are known and allocation of consideration to the delivered items is most often based on the residual method. In addition to the preceding conditions under ASU No. 2009-13 and for applicable pre-existing arrangements, equipment revenue is not recorded until the installation has been completed if equipment acceptance is dependent upon installation or if installation is essential to the functionality of the equipment. Installation revenues are not recorded until installation has been completed.
For arrangements (or portions of arrangements) falling within software revenue recognition standards and that do not involve significant production, modification, or customization, revenue for each software or software-related element is recognized when the Company has VSOE of the fair value of all of the undelivered elements and applicable criteria have been met for the delivered elements. When the arrangements involve significant production, modification or customization, long-term construction-type accounting involving proportional performance is generally employed.
For prepaid service contracts, sales revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract, unless historical evidence indicates the costs are incurred on other than a straight-line basis. License fee revenue is recognized as earned, and no revenue is recognized until the inception of the license term.
On occasion, agreements will contain milestones, or 3M will recognize revenue based on proportional performance. For these agreements, and depending on the specifics, 3M may recognize revenue upon completion of a substantive milestone, or in proportion to costs incurred to date compared with the estimate of total costs to be incurred.
Accounts receivable and allowances: Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount and do not bear interest. The Company maintains allowances for bad debts, cash discounts, product returns and various other items. The allowance for doubtful accounts and product returns is based on the best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in existing accounts receivable and anticipated sales returns. The Company determines the allowances based on historical write-off experience by industry and regional economic data and historical sales returns. The Company reviews the allowance for doubtful accounts monthly. The Company does not have any significant off-balance-sheet credit exposure related to its customers.
Advertising and merchandising: These costs are charged to operations in the period incurred, and totaled $423 million in 2013, $482 million in 2012 and $518 million in 2011.
Research, development and related expenses: These costs are charged to operations in the period incurred and are shown on a separate line of the Consolidated Statement of Income. Research, development and related expenses totaled $1.715 billion in 2013, $1.634 billion in 2012 and $1.570 billion in 2011. Research and development expenses, covering basic scientific research and the application of scientific advances in the development of new and improved products and their uses, totaled $1.150 billion in 2013, $1.079 billion in 2012 and $1.036 billion in 2011. Related expenses primarily include technical support provided by 3M to customers who are using existing 3M products; internally developed patent costs, which include costs and fees incurred to prepare, file, secure and maintain patents; amortization of externally acquired patents and externally acquired in-process research and development; and gains/losses associated with certain corporate approved investments in R&D-related ventures, such as equity method effects and impairments.
Internal-use software: The Company capitalizes direct costs of services used in the development of internal-use software. Amounts capitalized are amortized over a period of three to seven years, generally on a straight-line basis, unless another systematic and rational basis is more representative of the software's use. Amounts are reported as a component of either machinery and equipment or capital leases within property, plant and equipment.
Environmental: Environmental expenditures relating to existing conditions caused by past operations that do not contribute to current or future revenues are expensed. Reserves for liabilities related to anticipated remediation costs are recorded on an undiscounted basis when they are probable and reasonably estimable, generally no later than the completion of feasibility studies or the Company's commitment to a plan of action. Environmental expenditures for capital projects that contribute to current or future operations generally are capitalized and depreciated over their estimated useful lives.
Income taxes: The provision for income taxes is determined using the asset and liability approach. Under this approach, deferred income taxes represent the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and tax basis of assets and liabilities. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred tax assets when uncertainty regarding their realizability exists. As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, the Company recorded $23 million and $29 million, respectively, of valuation allowances. The Company recognizes and measures its uncertain tax positions based on the rules under ASC 740, Income Taxes.
Earnings per share: The difference in the weighted average 3M shares outstanding for calculating basic and diluted earnings per share attributable to 3M common shareholders is the result of the dilution associated with the Company's stock-based compensation plans. Certain options outstanding under these stock-based compensation plans during the years 2013, 2012 and 2011 were not included in the computation of diluted earnings per share attributable to 3M common shareholders because they would not have had a dilutive effect (2.0 million average options for 2013, 12.6 million average options for 2012, and 17.4 million average options for 2011). The computations for basic and diluted earnings per share for the years ended December 31 follow:
|Earnings Per Share Computations|| || || || || || || || || |
| || || || || || || || || || || || |
|(Amounts in millions, except per share amounts)|| ||2013|| ||2012|| ||2011|
|Numerator:|| || || || || || || || || |
| ||Net income attributable to 3M || ||$|| 4,659|| ||$|| 4,444|| ||$|| 4,283|
| || || || || || || || || || || || |
|Denominator:|| || || || || || || || || |
| ||Denominator for weighted average 3M common shares || || || || || || || || || |
| || ||outstanding – basic || || || 681.9|| || || 693.9|| || || 708.5|
| || || || || || || || || || || || |
| ||Dilution associated with the Company’s stock-based || || || || || || || || || |
| || ||compensation plans || || || 11.7|| || || 9.4|| || || 10.5|
| || || || || || || || || || || || |
| ||Denominator for weighted average 3M common shares|| || || || || || || || || |
| || ||outstanding – diluted || || || 693.6|| || || 703.3|| || || 719.0|
| || || || || || || || || || || || |
|Earnings per share attributable to 3M common shareholders – basic|| ||$|| 6.83|| ||$|| 6.40|| ||$|| 6.05|
|Earnings per share attributable to 3M common shareholders – diluted || ||$|| 6.72|| ||$|| 6.32|| ||$|| 5.96|
Stock-based compensation: The Company recognizes compensation expense for its stock-based compensation programs, which include stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units, performance shares, and the General Employees' Stock Purchase Plan (GESPP). Under applicable accounting standards, the fair value of share-based compensation is determined at the grant date and the recognition of the related expense is recorded over the period in which the share-based compensation vests. Refer to Note 14 for additional information.
Comprehensive income: Total comprehensive income and the components of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) are presented in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income and the Consolidated Statement of Changes in Equity. Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) is composed of foreign currency translation effects (including hedges of net investments in international companies), defined benefit pension and postretirement plan adjustments, unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale debt and equity securities, and unrealized gains and losses on cash flow hedging instruments.
Derivatives and hedging activities: All derivative instruments within the scope of ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, are recorded on the balance sheet at fair value. The Company uses interest rate swaps, currency and commodity price swaps, and foreign currency forward and option contracts to manage risks generally associated with foreign exchange rate, interest rate and commodity market volatility. All hedging instruments that qualify for hedge accounting are designated and effective as hedges, in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. If the underlying hedged transaction ceases to exist, all changes in fair value of the related derivatives that have not been settled are recognized in current earnings. Instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are marked to market with changes recognized in current earnings. Cash flows from derivative instruments are classified in the statement of cash flows in the same category as the cash flows from the items subject to designated hedge or undesignated (economic) hedge relationships. The Company does not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading purposes and is not a party to leveraged derivatives.
Credit risk: The Company is exposed to credit loss in the event of nonperformance by counterparties in interest rate swaps, currency swaps, commodity price swaps, and forward and option contracts. However, the Company's risk is limited to the fair value of the instruments. The Company actively monitors its exposure to credit risk through the use of credit approvals and credit limits, and by selecting major international banks and financial institutions as counterparties. 3M enters into master netting arrangements with counterparties when possible to mitigate credit risk in derivative transactions. A master netting arrangement may allow each counterparty to net settle amounts owed between a 3M entity and the counterparty as a result of multiple, separate derivative transactions. The Company does not anticipate nonperformance by any of these counterparties. 3M has elected to present the fair value of derivative assets and liabilities within the Company's consolidated balance sheet on a gross basis even when derivative transactions are subject to master netting arrangements and may otherwise qualify for net presentation.
Fair value measurements: 3M follows ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, with respect to assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and nonrecurring basis. Under the standard, fair value is defined as the exit price, or the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants as of the measurement date. The standard also establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs market participants would use in valuing the asset or liability developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company's assumptions about the factors market participants would use in valuing the asset or liability developed based upon the best information available in the circumstances. The hierarchy is broken down into three levels. Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. Level 2 inputs include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, and inputs (other than quoted prices) that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability. Categorization within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
Acquisitions: The Company accounts for business acquisitions in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations. This standard requires the acquiring entity in a business combination to recognize all (and only) the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the transaction and establishes the acquisition-date fair value as the measurement objective for all assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. Certain provisions of this standard prescribe, among other things, the determination of acquisition-date fair value of consideration paid in a business combination (including contingent consideration) and the exclusion of transaction and acquisition-related restructuring costs from acquisition accounting.
New Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2011-04, Fair Value Measurement: Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in U.S. GAAP and IFRSs. This standard clarifies guidance on how to measure fair value and is largely consistent with existing fair value measurement principles. The ASU also expands existing disclosure requirements for fair value measurements and makes other amendments. For 3M, this ASU was effective prospectively beginning January 1, 2012. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on 3M's consolidated results of operations or financial condition.
In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-05, Presentation of Comprehensive Income, and in December 2011 issued ASU No. 2011-12, Deferral of the Effective Date for Amendments to the Presentation of Reclassification of Items Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income in Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-05. These standards require entities to present items of net income and other comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement, or in separate, but consecutive, statements of net income and other comprehensive income. The new requirements do not change which components of comprehensive income are recognized in net income or other comprehensive income, or when an item of other comprehensive income must be reclassified to net income. Also, the earnings-per share computation does not change. However, the option under previous standards to report other comprehensive income and its components in the statement of changes in equity was eliminated. For 3M, these standards were effective retrospectively beginning January 1, 2012, with early adoption permitted. 3M adopted these standards in the fourth quarter of 2011. Since these standards impact presentation and disclosure requirements only, their adoption did not have a material impact on 3M's consolidated results of operations or financial condition.
In September 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-08, Testing Goodwill for Impairment. Under this standard, entities testing goodwill for impairment now have an option of performing a qualitative assessment before having to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit. If an entity determines, on the basis of qualitative factors, that the fair value of the reporting unit is more-likely-than-not less than the carrying amount, the existing quantitative impairment test is required. Otherwise, no further impairment testing is required. For 3M, this ASU was effective beginning January 1, 2012, with early adoption permitted under certain conditions. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on 3M's consolidated results of operations or financial condition.
In December 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-11, Disclosures About Offsetting Assets and Liabilities, and in January 2013 issued ASU No. 2013-01, Clarifying the Scope of Disclosures About Offsetting Assets and Liabilities. These standards created new disclosure requirements regarding the nature of an entity's rights of setoff and related arrangements associated with its derivative instruments, repurchase agreements, and securities lending transactions. Certain disclosures of the amounts of certain instruments subject to enforceable master netting arrangements are required, irrespective of whether the entity has elected to offset those instruments in the statement of financial position. For 3M, these ASUs were effective January 1, 2013 with retrospective application required. The additional disclosures required by these ASUs are included in Note 11. Since these standards impact disclosure requirements only, their adoption did not have a material impact on 3M's consolidated results of operations or financial condition.
In July 2012, the FASB issued ASU No. 2012-02, Testing Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets for Impairment. Under this standard, entities testing long-lived intangible assets for impairment now have an option of performing a qualitative assessment to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary. If an entity determines, on the basis of qualitative factors, that the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset is more-likely-than-not less than the carrying amount, the existing quantitative impairment test is required. Otherwise, no further impairment testing is required. For 3M, this ASU was effective beginning January 1, 2013. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on 3M's consolidated results of operations or financial condition.
In February 2013, the FASB issued ASU No. 2013-02, Reporting of Amounts Reclassified Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. Under this standard, entities are required to disclose additional information with respect to changes in accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI) balances by component and significant items reclassified out of AOCI. Expanded disclosures for presentation of changes in AOCI involve disaggregating the total change of each component of other comprehensive income (for example, unrealized gains or losses on available for sale debt and equity securities) as well as presenting separately for each such component the portion of change in AOCI related to (1) amounts reclassified into income and (2) current-period other comprehensive income. Additionally, for amounts reclassified into income, disclosure in one location is required, based upon each specific AOCI component, of the amounts impacting individual income statement line items. Disclosure of the income statement line item impacts is required only for components of AOCI reclassified into income in their entirety. Therefore, disclosure of the income statement line items affected by AOCI components such as net periodic benefit costs is not included. The disclosures required with respect to income statement line item impacts are to be made in either the notes to the consolidated financial statements or parenthetically on the face of the financial statements. For 3M, this ASU was effective beginning January 1, 2013. The additional disclosures required by this ASU are included in Note 5. Because this standard only impacts presentation and disclosure requirements, its adoption did not have a material impact on 3M's consolidated results of operations or financial condition.
In March 2013, the FASB issued ASU No. 2013-05, Parent's Accounting for the Cumulative Translation Adjustment upon Derecognition of Certain Subsidiaries or Groups of Assets within a Foreign Entity or of an Investment in a Foreign Entity. This standard provides additional guidance with respect to the reclassification into income of the cumulative translation adjustment (CTA) recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income associated with a foreign entity of a parent company. The ASU differentiates between transactions occurring within a foreign entity and transactions/events affecting an investment in a foreign entity. For transactions within a foreign entity, the full CTA associated with the foreign entity would be reclassified into income only when the sale of a subsidiary or group of net assets within the foreign entity represents the substantially complete liquidation of that foreign entity. For transactions/events affecting an investment in a foreign entity (for example, control or ownership of shares in a foreign entity), the full CTA associated with the foreign entity would be reclassified into income only if the parent no longer has a controlling interest in that foreign entity as a result of the transaction/event. In addition, acquisitions of a foreign entity completed in stages will trigger release of the CTA associated with an equity method investment in that entity at the point a controlling interest in the foreign entity is obtained. For 3M, this ASU is effective prospectively beginning January 1, 2014, with early adoption permitted. This ASU would impact 3M's consolidated results of operations and financial condition only in the instance of an event/transaction as described above.